Chorioretinal Atrophy Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Chorioretinal degeneration is another term for chorioretinal atrophy. It may happen in an eye that is moderately or severely myopic and has patches of pallor and pigment loss that are indicative of a posterior staphyloma. Atrophic lesions that are initially small, white, or yellow in color have a tendency to become larger and merge into larger lesions with pigment clumps at or near the edges.

These changes are caused by the obstruction of choroidal end arteries, which indicates a severe loss of choroidal circulation and puts the fundus at risk for the creation of neo-vascular membranes and subretinal neovascularization. These changes occur as a consequence of an increase in the area and depth of the posterior staphyloma.

The most dangerous result of chorioretinal degeneration is the presence of a Fuchs spot, which is a pigmented lesion that is elliptical or spherical, confined, and located in the macular or paramacular region. 

Chorioretinal Atrophy Definition

Chorioretinal atrophy (CR) is the condition that occurs as a consequence of the destruction of the choriocapillaris, the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE), and the superficial layers of the sensory retina. This may be due to a choriocapillaris-related decrease in blood flow or an inflammatory event. Because the damaged retinal pigment epithelial cells move into the inner retinal layers, there is often clumping of pigment in and around the lesion. Sometimes, there is a clumping of pigment around a vein that goes through the lesion. 

Chorioretinal Atrophy Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Chorioretinal Atrophy Symptoms

Chorioretinal atrophy symptoms might differ according to the location and severity of the atrophy, as well as the etiology of the condition. Some of the most prevalent symptoms include:

  • Minor to severe visual impairment may develop as a result of chorioretinal atrophy.
  • Chorioretinal atrophy can alter the eye's refractive capabilities, leading to blurred or distorted vision.
  • The retina's capacity to adapt to various light levels may be compromised in people with chorioretinal atrophy, making it challenging for them to see in low-light conditions.
  • Chorioretinal atrophy can impede the ability to see minute visual details, such as when reading small print or doing tasks requiring perfect hand-eye coordination.

Chorioretinal Atrophy Causes

Older individuals are more likely to get chorioretinal atrophy, which is a typical aspect of aging. Chorioretinal atrophy is more common in persons with certain inherited eye disorders like retinitis pigmentosa.

Chorioretinal atrophy can be caused by some chronic disorders, such as diabetes, that affect the blood vessels in the eye. Chorioretinal atrophy can be brought on by a blow to the head or a penetrating injury to the eye, both of which can lead to vision loss. Chorioretinal atrophy can also be brought on by an eye infection or an eye inflammation like uveitis.

Chorioretinal Atrophy Treatment

Chorioretinal atrophy is a condition for which there is presently no treatment or cure, and treatment choices are restricted. Slowing the disease's course and alleviating symptoms are the primary goals of treatment. Gene therapy and stem cell therapy are two of the experimental treatments that are currently being investigated for chorioretinal atrophy. 

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