Other than kidney stones, it may also occur due to some Illness or medical condition. Normally, kidney filters waste material from blood and pass it on to kidney calyces. These calyces form renal pelvis. From calyces, collected waste is passed on to ureter. Ureter is responsible for creating connection between bladder and renal pelvis. Urethra is the tube which carries urine and transfer it. Hydronephrosis may be congenital or may occur due to physiological response in pregnancy. Some researchers described that, this condition may occur due to progesterone effect on the kidney. Pelvocaliectasis leads to various complications. Some of the complications are decreased blood purification rate, increased pressure on kidney and increased fluid accumulation.
The symptoms of pelvocaliectasis may be direct or indirect. Symptoms also depends upon the underlying cause. If kidney stones is the cause, then patient may experience an intense pain with acute onset in back, which may further expand to groin region. Nausea, vomiting and sweating are also associated. Sudden pain layer may be experienced in kidney and patient may roll down due to intensity of pain. Sometimes, blood traces are seen in urine. Now some severe symptoms are associated with chronic pelvocaliectasis. These symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, leg swelling, nausea, vomiting and malaise etc.
There are various causes behind pelvocaliectasis which are classified on the basis of location of swelling. Causes may be intrinsic i.e. inside urinary collecting system or extrinsic i.e. outside urinary collecting system. It may also occur due to alteration in the functioning of kidney. In case of intrinsic causes of pelvocaliectasis, there may be kidney stones, blood clot, stricture or scarring in ureter. There may be stones in bladder, bladder cancer, bladder neck contracture and bladder cancer. In urethra, there may be cancer, valves or stricture. In extrinsic causes, there may be tumor or cancer of cervix or prostate.
In case of acute pelvocaliectasis, patient feels intense unbearable pain in kidney and need sudden treatment. Pain killers are used for that purpose. If blood is observed in urine, then it may be due to an infection. Antibiotics are used for this infection. Tumors and appendicitis are also the main causes and can be treated via chemotherapy. If there is fever associated with pelvocaliectasis, medications for fever are also required. Patient may develop bacteremia and it may prove fatal for patient. It is a blood stream bacterial infection and needs sudden medical attention. If patient has only one kidney, then the mortality rate is high.