Mesocardia Definiton, ECG, Causes, Treatment | Mesocardia vs Dextrocardia

Mesocardia occurs when the heart and the cardiac base-apex axis is oriented to the midline of the thorax, or when the ventricular apices are directed equally to the right and left sides. Mesocardia is thus described as a state in which the heart lacks a recognizable apex and its longitudinal axis lies in the midsagittal plane. In an anteroposterior plane, the atria are positioned next to one another and behind the ventricles. The anterior ventricles are close together and side by side. Situs solitus is present in the majority of mesocardia, while situs inversus and ambiguus have also been observed. 

Mesocardia Definition

When the heart lacks a clear apex and its longitudinal axis sits in the midsagittal plane, the condition is known as mesocardia. Mesocardia is an extremely uncommon congenital anomaly, accounting for only 0.2% of all such conditions. Its relationship with other cardiac and vascular anomalies, on the other hand, calls for a comprehensive workup for the identification of such related disorders.

Mesocardia ECG (Echocardiography)

For patients with all types of congenital heart disease, two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography have emerged as the gold standard for the initial diagnostic assessment. These techniques also provide vital anatomic information for individuals with cardiac malpositions. Transthoracic echocardiography is a straightforward and noninvasive approach that can offer the majority of therapeutically significant information regarding the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, particularly in young patients. Transesophageal echocardiography can be utilized to gather additional echocardiographic information when a transthoracic examination is insufficient (e.g., in patients with poor transthoracic imaging, big body size, postoperative bandaging, etc).

Mesocardia Definiton, ECG, Causes, Treatment | Mesocardia vs Dextrocardia

Mesocardia Causes

Usually, mesocardia is observed in conjunction with other structural cardiac defects, however, occasionally it can be detected alone. The majority of prenatal cases that have been recorded are associated with either heart abnormalities or extracardiac malformations. An intrathoracic tumor, pulmonary anomalies, or a diaphragmatic hernia can all result in the heart being shifted to the thoracic midline.  Additionally, heterotaxy, chromosomal abnormalities, and genetic syndromes have all been linked to mesocardia, along with severe cardiac malformations.

Mesocardia Treatment

There is no need for any intervention to be performed if the patient is asymptomatic. In cases of partial pericardial abnormalities, surgical repair may be necessary to alleviate symptoms. When disabling symptoms are present, as well as when there is a congenital absence of the pericardium, surgery is the recommended treatment option. After surgery, all patients experience symptomatic benefits with a reduction in the intensity and frequency of pain.

Mesocardia vs Dextrocardia

Dextrocardia is the medical term for a condition in which the heart is positioned on the left side of the chest rather than the normal position on the right side. Mesocardia, which can be seen on the posteroanterior chest x-ray film as the heart lying primarily neither to the right nor to the left, denotes that the heart is roughly in the middle of the thorax. Dextrocardia and mesocardia describe where the heart is in relation to other organs, but they do not describe how the heart is divided into segments.

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