Mucoperiosteal Flap Types, Procedure, Design, Elevation

Mucoperiosteal flap is a membrane type covering or flap which consist of skin specially involving subcutaneous tissue. It also consist of a pedicle  which is made up of nutrient vessel. Mucoperiosteal flap is defined as a separate section of oral mucosal line, gingiva and underlying periosteum helping in periodontal surgery. It is also of great help in tooth extraction technique. The formation of mucoperiosteal flap is considered necessary or essential in case if minor oral surgeries. Some of the minor oral surgeries include enucleation of cystic lesions, impacted teeth and apicectomy.

During oral surgeries, it is the basic principle to make everything in oral cavity visible. This is so because, it avoids possible complications with the adjacent tissues or organs. This flap is designed for the purpose of good surgical exposure. When the incision of flap is planned, the destruction of normal epithelial lining attached to it should be avoided. There are various techniques designed but most of them are forgotten. Some if the techniques are useful in case if patients facing unusual complications. So it is concluded that mucoperiosteal flap formation is necessary during minor oral surgeries. It makes the surgery easier and more convenient for both patient and surgeon.

Mucoperiosteal Flap Types, Procedure, Design, Elevation

Mucoperiosteal Flap Procedure

Mucoperiosteal flap can be created with the help of simpler tools. The site where surgery is required , a small incision is made which should be at least 0.5 to 1mm away from gingival line. Now the flap is elevated or removed from the site. Now the inner structure is clear and visible to the surgeon. The incision made should be circular. The granulation tissues are removed. After completing surgery, the flap is placed again to its original position and fix it permanently. This is a simple procedure but it is also the most helpful one.

Mucoperiosteal Flap Design & Types

On the basis of design of mucoperiosteal flap, it is divided in to it's types. Its types are

  • Envelop /sulcular flap It is edentulous and it is created at the crest of the ridge and for the removal of mandibular torus.
  • Tooth anterior and tooth posterior. According to the site.
  • Pedicle Flap. It mobilizes from one area to another with a filling of soft tissue in defect. The oroantral communications are closed.
  • Semilunar Incision. It approach the root apex. It is useful for Peri epical surgery. It avoids trauma to the papilae and gingival margin.

Mucoperiosteal Flap Elevation

The elevation of mucoperiosteal flap is considered important in case of movement if teeth. When the heavy full thickness mucoperiosteal flap is elevated, it ultimately increases the risk of increased movement of teeth. The movement of teeth may increases up to 24 to 31 percent. Due to elevation of mucoperiosteal flap, the bone volume fraction also decreases. The density of mandibular bone in the surgical area also decreases. This allows the acceleration of tooth movement. So to avoid these complications, a thin mucoperiosteal flap should be elevated to have a clear view for the surgery. And proper care is required for that purpose.